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Journal Articles Fire Technology Year : 2015

Limit-Based Fire Hazard Model for Evaluating Tunnel Life Safety


Despite the simple one-dimensional symmetry of a tunnel with a longitudinal ventilation flow, risk analysis often comprises resource intensive and complex calculations. The purpose of this article is to present a simple yet precise limit-based model for assessing the possibility for a safe tunnel evacuation. To estimate the model uncertainty, fire dynamics calculations were compared to experimental data. The calculations performed well compared to experimental test data, showing an average difference between 5 and 40% in predicting the time available for evacuation, when criteria for visibility, air temperature, CO, CO2 and O2 concentration and heat flux were calculated. For steadily growing fires, visibility showed a low sensitivity to variability in input parameters with a relative difference at 9% compared to experimental data. Due to several factors it was not possible to estimate the accuracy of HCN calculations. Visualizing the hazards in a time–distance diagram revealed visibility to be the key indicator for calculating ASET for a broad set of plausible input parameters. This resulted in a simple expression for calculating ASET and consequently a simple condition for evaluating life safety.
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Dates and versions

hal-03580559 , version 1 (18-02-2022)



J. Gehandler, L. Eymann, M. Regeffe. Limit-Based Fire Hazard Model for Evaluating Tunnel Life Safety. Fire Technology, 2015, 51 (3), pp.585-614. ⟨10.1007/s10694-014-0406-5⟩. ⟨hal-03580559⟩
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